Postgraduate Landscape at Kingston University: Open evening Wednesday 14 November 2018

Find out more about postgraduate Landscape studies at Kingston University by attending a Postgraduate Drop-in Evening giving you the opportunity for you to talk to staff about postgraduate study.

Our next Postgraduate Drop-in Evenings will take place on:
Wednesday 14 November 2018, 5.00 – 7.00pm – Booking open

You will have the chance to:

  • have one-to-one conversations with academic staff to help you choose the course that is right for you
  • ask any questions you may have about the application and enrolment process;
    receive advice on finance, support services, careers and accommodation
  • view our learning facilities and resources.

Who are the Postgraduate Drop-in Evenings suitable for?

We recommend this event if you are thinking of applying for a postgraduate course at Kingston University, whether you already know which subject you would like to study or are still deciding.

If you’ve already applied for a course, you are also welcome to come along and meet academic staff and find out more about your course.

For further information contact: K.Fatsar@kingston.ac.uk

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Recognising and harnessing the role of the natural environment in promoting good health

Exeter report

Exeter report

The report ‘Health and the natural environment: A review of evidence, policy, practice and opportunities for the future’ and associated Research Briefing and Evidence Statement are published by Defra (Defra Project Code BE0109) and are available from the Department’s Science and Research Projects Database at http://randd.defra.gov.uk.

This excellent and extensive report by Dr Rebecca Lovell and  Professor Michael Depledge of the European Centre for Environment and Human Health at University of Exeter Medical School and Dr Simon Maxwell of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs focused on the interconnections between the natural environment and health, and the ways in which these are, or could be harnessed in policy and practice.

The aims of the project were to:

  • Clarify what is known about the linkages between natural environments and health, to characterise how different social groups understand the health potential of the natural environment, and to examine the factors that may facilitate or prevent the realisation of those benefits;
  • Evaluate how evidence of the value of natural environments to health is recognised, taken into account by, and incorporated into existing policy and practice;
  • Identify effective and promising opportunities to act on the value of natural environments to promote better health.

The report recognises that there are many organisations involved in activity which aims to recognise, promote or harness the health potential of the natural environment, including governmental departments, research institutions, funding bodies, 3rd sector and civil society organisations, and the private and commercial sector. The Landscape Institute is identified amongst a comprehensive list of cross-sectoral organisations, professional bodies and networks.

A key opportunity for the Landscape profession is identified in the section that identifies the most promising opportunities and strategies to act on the potential of natural environments to promote better health.

Improve the amount, quality, standards and accessibility of urban natural environments. Some of the strongest and most robust associations relate to the positive health outcomes of living in areas with a greater amount of good quality natural environment. Strategies could include working with local authorities and other environmental managers to develop standards for health promoting natural environments and identifying the additional and interactive role of urban greenspaces in delivering wider policies and programmes (e.g. health or education).”

The report establishes evidence of the linkages between natural environments and health by commenting that there is,

” ….a growing body of evidence regarding the effectiveness of specific natural environment related interventions. Newly emerging evidence is clarifying how the siting, design or maintenance of natural environments (particularly in urban areas) can enhance health, however the results are mixed. Interventions which have sought to encourage health related access or engagement with, or which have used the environment as a setting to promote health (preventative or therapeutic), have typically resulted in positive impacts to outcomes such as mental health, quality of life and to behaviours such as physical activity.”

Key findings:

1. There is evidence of positive associations (after controlling for confounding factors) between living in greener environments and a range of physical, mental and developmental outcomes and reduced health inequality. There is also a growing body of evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of the use natural environments as a setting for specific health interventions and that these interventions can be cost-effective

2. There are gaps in the evidence base, these relate to mechanisms and causal linkages, and to variation in effect according to environment (location, type and quality), population or intervention. However, there is much ongoing multi-disciplinary work which may address these questions. There is a new emphasis on producing evidence suitable to inform future decision making.

3. People value the natural environment for its role in helping achieve and maintain better health. In the UK the natural environment’s contribution to health is culturally important. Perceptions of the benefits of the natural environment differ according to socio-cultural group, geographical and political context, and through the life course, however this is less well understood.

4. There is considerable interest, predominantly from 3rd sector and research organisations but also from national and local government, in finding effective ways to harness the potential of the natural environment to promote health. This relates to a tangible recognition that the environment represents an underutilised resource. Examples of activity include local health projects making use of natural environments as a health promotion setting, to regional or national scale multi-sectoral efforts to coordinate programmes of interventions. However, existing activity is often disjointed, short term and opportunities to learn valuable lessons are missed. The multi-sectoral nature of the issues and activities means the potential of the natural environment to contribute to health is, arguably, ‘falling through the cracks’.

5. The key constraints of activity are often structural, relating to the organisation and procedures of government (local and national) or institutions. Other barriers to activity relate to: the perception of the peripherality of the environment to health; reorganisations of institutions and the loss of networks and knowledge; difficulties in demonstrating impacts and outcomes of environment-health interventions; and the constrained budgets and (perceived) rigidity of the health and social care system.

6. As current policy and practice display characteristics of ‘complex adaptive systems’, future activities should involve multiple partners, policy instruments and delivery methods at a variety of scales. Key strategies to increase recognition and activity regarding the health values of natural environments relate to: i) improving the evidence base and increasing evaluative activity; ii) identifying and facilitating key intervention and delivery options; and iii) focusing on the structures and systems in which decision making and delivery takes place.

Possible areas for further research

Despite the growing evidence of positive and significant impacts of the natural environment on a variety of health outcomes, there a number of limitations to the current evidence base, these relate to the scope and extent of specific bodies of the research, the quality of the methodologies used, and the reliability and transferability of findings. Key evidence needs relate to:

  • A greater understanding of the socio-cultural and temporal factors within environment-health relationships and of the heterogeneity and consistency of outcomes.
  • The necessary conditions for natural environments to be effective in promoting health, and the contexts, settings and life stages during which interventions to promote the health benefits of natural environments are most effective.
  • The role of the natural environment in promoting individual or community health related resilience (particularly in relation to multiple deprivation).
  • The factors or interventions that are effective in encouraging health related use of the natural environment and how this can be achieved without exacerbating health inequalities.
  • Clarification of how the links between natural environments and health are understood and acted upon by professionals or within institutions, for instance, in relation to the acceptability of green prescription approaches.

A research briefing of the final report can be read here.

 

 

 

Rejecting calls for mandatory requirements on urban green infrastructure threatens wellbeing of vulnerable people.

The UK’s Environmental Audit Committee (EAC) earlier considered risks to health, wellbeing and productivity associated with heatwaves, reviewed the level of UK resilience to them and assessed the Government’s actions to date. The Committee also examined public health risks associated with higher temperatures as well as heatwaves. The full remit of the enquiry can be read here. Following their reveiw the EAC produced a report of their findings “Heatwaves: adapting to climate change” – published in July 2018.

The House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee is now accusing Ministers of “dragging their feet” on action to protect people from heatwaves and is calling on the Government to do more.  The Environmental Audit Committee was commenting on the Government’s response to its earlier report –  warning that there will be 7,000 heat-related deaths every year in the UK by 2050 if the Government does not act. The Government must do more to protect the public from the effects of heatwaves, says the Environmental Audit Committee. The Committee found that failing to address the danger of heatwaves will threaten the wellbeing of an increasing number of vulnerable people.

The earlier ECA report called on the Government to:

1. Ensure NHS England issues guidance on planning for summer pressures, to ensure that adequate steps are taken to prepare the NHS for more frequent heatwaves. NHS organisations should submit annual heatwave plans to ensure they are prepared for the sudden onset of a heatwave;
2. Inspect resilience to heatwaves in hospitals and care homes through the Care Quality Commission and NHS England;
3. Protect peoples’ health by changing building regulations to prevent overheating;
4. Review the capacity of local authorities to deliver climate change resilience, require them to report on their adaptation to climate change and introduce an urban green infrastructure target for cities;
5. Introduce stricter water efficiency standards as part of the building regulations;
6. Coordinate a study of vulnerability to heat-health risks on transport and how this contributes to economic loss during heatwaves;
7. Make businesses aware of the threat of heatwaves and the economic consequences. Public Health England should also issue formal guidance to employers to relax dress codes and allow flexible working during heatwaves, and the Government should consult on introducing maximum workplace temperatures, especially for work that involves significant physical effort;
8. Issue guidance for head teachers about safe temperatures in schools and relaxing school uniform policy during hot weather;
9. Launch a public information campaign on the growing frequency and intensity of heatwaves and run a year-round heatwave alert system to warn vulnerable people about the health risks; and
10. Provide a Ministerial lead in the Department of Health and Social Care with responsibility for climate change related health risks.

The Government’s response to the report, published on 25 September 2018, accepts some of the recommendations. However there is concern that ministers have not properly acknowledged many of the conclusions to which the report is based.

Chair of the Environmental Audit Committee, Mary Creagh MP, said:

“The Government has committed to create sustainable cities and healthy communities as part of the Sustainable Development Goals. Ministers must act to protect people from the risks of heatwaves – especially with the UK’s ageing population.

“There is a worrying lack of co-ordination across government, and the Government’s admission that all new properties are prone to overheating is astonishing.

“We are particularly disappointed that the Government have decided to press ahead with using public money to build modular homes, which are particularly vulnerable to overheating, flooding and only last fifty years.”

The Government has resisted the Committee’s call for DEFRA to require local authorities to report on how they are adapting to climate change, on the basis that they already have a number of duties and reporting obligations on a range of climate risks. However, it will consider the recommendation to re-instate the Regional Climate Change Partnerships.

Ministers have rejected calls for mandatory requirements on urban green infrastructure and SuDS in all new developments. Responding to the recommendation that the Government should introduce an urban green infrastructure target as part of the metrics for the 25 Year Environment Plan and in the National Planning Policy Framework, the report says that the Government has committed to encouraging investment in green infrastructure in urban areas.

Multiple benefits of natural flood management

watermanagement infographic

This infographic, created for Natural Course, can help catchment partners communicate to communities the multiple benefits of Natural Flood Management. Natural Course is an EU funded LIFE Integrated Project, that will run for 10 years to improve and protect the water quality of the North West of England.

 

Download the infographic here. The Natural Course website is full of useful references on Natural Flood Management.

 

Health, wealth & happiness – the multiple benefits of green infratructure

With the latest issue of the Landscape journal, Summer 2018: Health and wellbeing,  focusing on the  important developments in the relationship between landscape and public health you may be interested in a recent paper ‘Health, Wealth and Happiness – the Multiple Benefits of Green Infrastructure’ by Erin Gianferrara and Janine Boshoff, an expert part from the EU funded PERFECT Project – Planning for Environment and Resource eFficiency in European Cities and Towns.

Landscape

The project aims to demonstrate how the multiple uses of green infrastructure can provide social, economic and environmental benefits. It will raise awareness of this potential, influence the policy-making process, and encourage greater investment in green infrastructure. The paper highlights the vast evidence available to support the case for green infrastructure investment based on the link between green infrastructure and human health.

‘Health, Wealth and Happiness – the Multiple Benefits of Green Infrastructure’ states that there is increasing evidence on how green infrastructure benefits human wellbeing  and with proper public funding and private finance, the potential to increase these benefits is significant. The report highlights evidence, focusing on mental and physical health benefits due to recreation, and reduced air and noise pollution due to urban vegetation.

The report asserts that making the investment case for green infrastructure is often problematic because, “…it has long been hard to measure and/or quantify the functional capacity that green infrastructure provides in terms of performing its role as ‘infrastructure’” ……..”green infrastructure also provides environmental, social and economic benefits that historically have not been easy to quantify and value.”

The report also highlights the difficulties in up-front costs of developing green infrastructure, while delivery of the benefits in terms of a clear financial return may come later and not be seen as directly related to the initial investment. The result is that, in many cases, green infrastructure is under-funded, opportunities to improve human health and wellbeing are missed, and beneficial environmental, social and economic outcomes are forgone.

Investing in green infrastructure generates:

  • environmental outcomes– such as improved air quality and associated improvements to health
  • social outcomes– such as increased community engagement and associated improvements in mental health
  • economic outcomes– such as improvement to the ‘sense of place’ or ‘attractiveness’ of an area and associated increases in property values

Foregoing these outcomes results in welfare losses and increased costs to society through increased environmental, social, and medical costs.

In its conclusions, the report suggests redirecting a proportion of health care budgets to preventive care budgets to support the enhancement of green infrastructure thus delivering health outcomes such as reduced mental and physical health costs from increased provision of and access to public green spaces, and avoided costs from treating ailments due to air and noise pollution.

 

Nature based solution for waste water treatment

A £500,000 wetland project funded by Anglian Water harnesses the power of natural “filters” to protect a river from waste water pollution. Here a nature based solution has been used to filter harmful pollutants generated by domestic detergents, as well as from human and animal waste. The process is dependent upon the ability of plants to naturally remove ammonia and phosphate from waste water piped from a neighbouring sewage treatment plant, allowing the resulting cleaned water to be returned to the River Ingol, renowned for its rich and diverse wildlife.

 

 
Four new inter-connected pools have been created on a pocket of land adjoining the River Ingol in North West Norfolk with the work carried out in collaboration with teams from the Norfolk Rivers Trust, Anglian Water and the Environment Agency. The 4 shallow interconnected pools are connected to a diversion of the River Ingol which has a chalk river bed – one of just 206 chalk streams in the world which makes the habitat which exists around the river system extremely important. The 4 new pools and the river banks have been planted with native chalk wetland species such as iris, sedges, rush, marsh marigold and watercress to assist with natural filtration.

 
Water quality tests from a neighbouring Anglian Water Sewage treatment plant revealed that the discharged water from the plant was not meeting desired levels and action was needed to cleanse the water further before it entered the River Ingol. The discharged water is now re-direct into the new pools which are carefully positioned to allow the water to flow through slowly. Plant life helps to decelerate the water flow and filters harmful properties such as phosphates and ammonia. By the time the water exits the 4th pool and is discharged back directly into the River Ingol, the water quality is significantly improved allowing wildlife and habitats which exists downstream from the treatment plant within the River Ingol to thrive.

 
This project has created a new wetland area delivering a dual benefit. In addition to its purpose of filtering more than a million litres of water a day, the wetland has huge biodiversity value, attracting breeding birds, amphibians, bats, and water voles. The pools are providing feeding & breeding grounds for wetland wildlife and birds.

Living Cities: Towards ecological urbanism

SWT coverThe Scottish Wildlife Trust has recently launched its new paper, Living Cities: towards ecological urbanism’ addressing the challenges it sees of achieving sustainable towns and cities. The Trust states that, “Growing numbers of people live in urban areas and they are disproportionately affected by the effects of environmental change including flooding caused by rising sea levels.

This report is the fourth in a series of policy statements developed and includes a sereis of 20 recomendations for planners, designers, architects and other professionals to, “embed nature in the urban environment at a number of different scales to ensure that towns and cities support a rich range of biodiversity, and that people enjoy a improved quality of life.”

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